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Green Economic Recovery

The COVID-19 pandemic triggered an economic downturn with an uneven impact across the Arab region. It also offered an opportunity for a green recovery that could help lift Arab economies out of recession while decarbonizing, creating decent jobs, promoting equity, and enhancing community and infrastructure resilience.

The extent to which Arab countries have set a pathway for green recovery is not fully clear from the adopted stimulus measures. Will Arab countries seize this opportunity and what should they consider for the medium and long term?

Directly related goals:

Building back better through a green economic recovery

To counter the impact of the COVID-19 crisis and reinvigorate the economy, Arab governments have introduced economic stimulus packages of varying sizes, amounting in total to around 4 per cent of the regional GDP.[1] Whereas the immediate urgency of the pandemic may have temporarily diverted attention away from environmental priorities, and despite fiscal constraints, medium-term development plans formulated in the region in 2020 onwards have considered sustainability aspects. Building a better future post-COVID-19 entails supporting a green recovery through a range of systemic changes that will help avert future health, economic and environmental shocks.

“We have a chance to not simply reset the world economy but to transform it… COVID-19 recovery and our planet’s repair must be the two sides of the same coin.”

Secretary-General, “The State of the Planet” speech given at Columbia University, 2 December 2020.

Economic stimulus packages

What has been done

Arab countries enacted various measures to support businesses stay afloat, including tax exemptions and reductions, waivers and reductions of government fees, rental subsidies, interest rate reductions, loans and interest deferment, and the extension of soft loans and credit support to increase liquidity.[2] A multitude of sectors were targeted including industry, tourism, transport, and to a lesser extent, agriculture and commerce. Examples include:

  • Oman exempted companies that register during 2021 and 2022 in the economic diversification sectors from income tax for a period of five years.[3] These include “transformative industries, transportation and logistics, education, tourism, fisheries and mining”. [4]
  • Egypt announced the recapitalization of the Egyptian Textile holding company[5] and suspended tax on agricultural land for 2 years. [6]
  • The United Arab Emirates extended reductions on the rental dues of airline offices and exemptions from the rentals of warehouse offices. Aviation support also included exemptions from parking and landing fees and operating fees. [7]
  • The Comoros presented two grants of a total of 750 million Comorian Francs (some $1.7 million) to the vanilla sector and road transporters. [8]

Waivers and reductions on utility bills for water, gas and electricity constituted a common measure across the region, and were often time-bound, with few countries easing related environmental regulation. For example:

  • Bahrain granted waivers on utility bills for water and electricity to individuals and businesses and so did Mauritania for poor families[9] and Iraq for all citizens.[10]
  • Jordan reinstated water meters to all subscribers with unsettled water bills of less than 300 Jordanian Dinars and stopped disconnecting those who fail to pay their dues. [11]
  • Reductions on gas and electricity prices for the industrial sector were introduced in Egypt.[12]
  • Exemptions on electricity and water bills for the hospitality, tourism and retails sectors and for commercial complexes and logistics zones were given in Qatar.[13]
  • Reductions of almost 50 per cent were awarded on electricity bills for enterprises in the commercial, industrial and agricultural sectors in Saudi Arabia. [14]
  • Tunisia postponed the collection of electricity and drinking water bills during the lockdown period with the possibility of settlement in instalments thereafter. [15]
  • Subsidies on water and electricity for citizens and for the industrial and commercial sectors were provided in the United Arab Emirates.[16] The Sharjah Electricity, Water and Gas Authority cancelled the fines imposed on commercial and industrial enterprises for additional electricity loads. [17]
  • Oman applied fixed tariffs for higher electricity consumers (more than 100,000 kilowatt-hours). [18]

What countries can do moving forward

There is little information on the environmental implications of the economic stimulus response to the COVID-19 crisis by Arab governments. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that they are likely to be negative or mixed (neutral at best), encouraging the consumption of resources and benefiting sectors that have a high environmental footprint. Global assessments have shown that governments have generally not used COVID-19 stimulus packages to shift their economies towards greener trajectories. [19]

Going forward, Arab countries need to weigh their responses to COVID-19 against a comprehensive frame that balances the dimensions of sustainable development and avoids reversing environmental gains achieved to date. Arab governments could:

  • Align stimulus packages with national 2030 Agenda and climate commitments. For example, rather than relaxing environmental regulations, green conditionalities could be attached to the financial support provided to polluting enterprises including emission reduction and renewable energy targets. Financial support could alternatively be channelled to environmentally sound products and industries.
  • Promote the regular disclosure of environmental information by large enterprises that benefit from government stimulus funding to hold them accountable for their environmental stewardship and entice them to adopt production methods that are environmentally friendly. Environmental information disclosure can equally enhance and support public participation in environmental protection as it enables the public to monitor enterprise activities impacting the environment[20] and lobby policy makers as necessary.
  • Continue efforts to reform fossil fuel subsidies and disincentivize carbon-intensive activities. Increasing taxation on fossil fuels in line with their social costs will promote more efficient consumption and redirect investments to renewables, limiting emissions and supporting countries achieve their climate targets. The resulting savings and revenues should be used by governments to ensure a just transition to fossil fuel workers and equitable funding for public services.[21]
Source: United Nations, COVID-19 Stimulus Tracker. Available at: http://tracker.unescwa.org (accessed on 8 October 2021); ESCWA, “Energy Vulnerability in the Arab Region”, 2019; ESCWA, “Status Report on the Implementation of Integrated Water Resources Management in the Arab Region: Progress on SDG indicator 6.5.1.”, 2019.

Development measures for 2020 and beyond with sustainability components

What has been done

Looking beyond immediate COVID-19 stimulus measures, it is clear that national development plans, voluntary national reviews of the 2030 Agenda and projects presented by Arab countries during 2020 and 2021 reflect actions to fulfil their climate commitments by increasing the share of renewable energy in the energy mix and enhancing energy efficiency, including through the promotion of businesses/industries and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that adopt sustainable and clean production methods. Another clear focus is the shift to green buildings and sustainable transport, as well as “net zero” projects. Examples abound, for instance:

  • The United Arab Emirates launched a plan to support the industrial sector to enhance sustainable and efficient production cycles and supply chains by implementing “industrial policies that reduce resource consumption, and support climate action and carbon neutrality efforts”, among other initiatives. [22]
  • Saudi Arabia signed a Declaration of Intent with Germany in March 2021 to collaborate on green hydrogen. [23] It also announced support for a net zero Red Sea tourism project in April 2021.[24]The Kingdom is planning to “reduce carbon emissions by more than 4 per cent of global contributions” by 2030.[25]
  • Jordan is planning to install small solar power plants for at least 4,000 poor families and to increase energy efficiency in government projects (including schools, hospitals and health centres, among others). [26] Jordan will also be working to set the stage for the transition to electric mobility in the coming five-year period.[27]
  • Algeria is aiming to gradually integrate renewable energies into the public works sector, and to enhance capacity for renewable electricity production by stimulating private investments. Algeria is also planning to halt the acquisition of diesel trains and to introduce fiscal and customs measures to encourage the import of electric vehicles. [28]

Several Arab countries are seeking to rationalize water use in agriculture, including by investing in efficient irrigation techniques in countries such as Egypt[29] and Lebanon,[30] and in rainfed agriculture through increased rainwater harvesting in countries like Somalia.[31] Investment in water treatment and reuse as a measure to address water scarcity was also underlined by some countries, including Jordan,[32] Morocco[33] and Palestine.[34]

Other environmental dimensions of focus include solid waste management and, to a lesser extent, tackling air pollution, combatting desertification and protecting biodiversity.

  • Tunisia is working on setting up a construction and demolition waste recovery unit in the Gabès Governorate with the capacity to handle 400,000 tons of construction and demolition waste per year. Tunisia also aims to reduce the total household waste generated by 10 per cent, increase recycling and the amount of waste intended for energy recovery by 20 per cent and 40 per cent respectively, and reduce disposal in landfills by 60 per cent by 2030. [35]
  • Egypt will be focusing on tackling air pollution, including through modernizing its air quality management system and supporting solid waste management in Greater Cairo. [36]
  • Palestine has committed to reducing and effectively controlling pollution, promoting integrated solid and hazardous waste management and recycling, establishing nature reserves and expanding green spaces. [37]
  • Mauritania will be working to fight desertification and encourage the sustainable management of forest resources. [38] The Syrian Arab Republic also committed, among other things, to fight desertification. [39]
  • Morocco will strive to achieve progress on issues of marine and terrestrial biodiversity preservation, enabling it to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 42 per cent by 2030.[40]
  • Saudi Arabia is planning to increase its “protected areas to more than 30 per cent of total land area”[41] and to “plant 10 billion trees”[42] throughout the country as part of the Saudi Green Initiative.

Green finance initiatives are also being implemented in several Arab countries.

  • In Egypt[43] and Morocco,[44] financial support is being provided to SMEs and local businesses to invest in green technologies, including renewable energy technologies and resource-efficient production machinery. Egypt has also issued green bonds. [45]
  • Jordan is working to enhance its climate finance governance to support greater climate capital mobilization and investment. [46]
  • A sustainable finance framework for 2021-2031 was launched by the United Arab Emirates. The framework aims at streamlining sustainable finance practices and strengthening public-private collaboration to enhance green and climate investments. [47]

It is worthwhile noting that the crisis led some countries to cancel or postpone planned green projects.[48] A case in point is the abolishment by the Kuwaiti cabinet of plans to build the 1.5-gigawatt Al-Dabdaba solar plant, which was expected to generate 15 per cent of the electricity requirements of the country from renewable sources by 2030.[49]

What countries can do moving forward

The following actions are recommended for Arab countries:

  • Aligning economic and environmental goals is imperative for green growth. This implies setting a long-term framework for economic policy making. It also requires coordination between ministries of finance, economy and environment and other relevant sectoral ministries at the highest level possible to drive the process and integrate green growth objectives into wider development plans.[50]
  • Monitoring and evaluating green growth progress will help determine the effectiveness of the policies in place.[51] Ex-ante evaluations are also important for a better understanding of possible wider social impacts and policy misalignments, including the prospects for job creation, which are core for long-standing sustainability.[52]
  • Institutional mechanisms must be established or adjusted to ensure the engagement of all the relevant stakeholders at all stages (from policy formulation to evaluation) and at all levels (from the national to the organization level) in the development of policies that are well integrated and appropriately address all concerns. Maintaining a meaningful and effective social dialogue all through and at all levels will secure buy-in. [53]
  • Building public-private partnerships is needed to create an enabling environment for decarbonization, with the necessary changes to existing infrastructure to support investment in and use of new/green technologies[54] (including incentive schemes, financing, green public procurement, investment in research and development, and the removal of environmentally harmful subsidies,[55] among other things). Partnership between government and industry is also needed to fund retraining and reskilling commensurate with changing sector needs. [56]
  • Promoting green finance is important to support the transition to greener economies. It requires the strengthening of regulatory frameworks and establishment of adequate enforcement mechanisms, enhancing awareness of the advantages of sustainable finance, developing incentives to advance the greening of the financial sector, expanding the pool of “bankable green projects” and enhancing institutional capacities to access climate finance. [57]
  • A just recovery that leaves no one behind requires putting in place social protection and skills development measures to ease potential harsh impacts on the most affected sectors and employees. The latter are mainly fossil fuel workers, who risk losing their jobs, and women, who are currently underrepresented in industries where employment will be most concentrated, namely renewables, construction and manufacturing. [58]
  • Transformative education is needed that trains learners to acknowledge and respect the interdependency between the human and natural systems, and provides them with the values, skills and motivation to transform established social and economic structures towards sustainability and resilience.

Box 2. Gender just green recovery

  • Environmental degradation and climate change have a disproportionate impact on women, especially the marginalized, given their greater dependence on natural resources (agriculture, fisheries and forests) for livelihood. This calls for a greater inclusion of women in decision-making on environmental issues.
  • The shift to a green economy will create new jobs and greater employment opportunities in green sectors, such as renewables, where women are not well represented, especially in high and technical positions. For instance, at present, one in 10 managers in the renewable energy sector are women and 32 per cent of employment in the sector goes to women. With the decarbonization of economies, it is expected that 6 million jobs will be lost, and 24 million new ones created. It is thus important to ensure that women have access to new employment opportunities on an equal footing, including through retraining and reskilling.[1] It should be noted, however, that some new green jobs can target rural women such as those relating to the use of solar dryers for food processing, climate-smart agriculture techniques and other rural green jobs relating to ecotourism.
  • The pandemic has shed light on the importance of jobs in care, health and education, where women tend to be overrepresented and more often occupy precarious positions, to social and economic welfare. These jobs are also essentially low in carbon emissions and enhancing their environmental sustainability would not require as many adjustments as in other sectors. It is consequently environmentally, economically and socially sensible to improve pay, security and flexibility for these jobs.[2]
  • More climate finance needs to be channelled to gender-responsive adaptation projects in developing countries. This entails mainstreaming gender considerations in the design and implementation of climate initiatives and supporting women affected by environmental degradation to diversify their livelihoods.[3]
  • [1] UN-Women “Beyond COVID-19: A Feminist Plan for Sustainability and Social Justice - Key messages”, 2021.
    [2] Elizabeth Hill, Rae Cooper and Frances Flanagan, “Four Building Blocks for a Gender Equitable and Sustainable Recovery”, The OECD Forum Network, 16 September 2021.
    [3] UN-Women “Beyond COVID-19: A Feminist Plan”, 2021.
Source: ESCWA, “SDG Data”, United Nations ESCWA Data Portal for the Arab Region. Available at: https://data.unescwa.org (accessed on 1 November 2021).

What to watch for

  • Escalating demand for energy with COVID-19 recovery could lead to increased carbon emissions. [59]
  • Potential future declines in GDP could be ahead if the region does not adapt to changing fossil fuel consumption patterns that will reduce energy exports in the long run.
  • A ramp up is expected in innovative financing mechanisms, including through green sukuk, issued to finance projects with positive climate and environmental impact. Green sukuk doubled in Gulf countries in the first half of 2021 ($6 billion) compared to 2020 ($3 billion) levels. However, they still form only 2.5 per cent of total outstanding sukuk. [60]
  • There may be greater investment in nature-based solutions as they are “shovel-ready” and can enhance employment generation and support vulnerable populations. [61]
  • It is estimated that nature-based solutions to climate change could generate 80 million jobs worldwide and support 1 billion people out of poverty. [62]
  • Various industries will need to shift towards green jobs as governments and enterprises intensify their efforts to deliver on climate and sustainability goals.
  • Clean technology will become cheaper and more widely available, offering more solutions for a greener economy. [63]
  • There will be shifts towards a circular economy that minimizes waste, pollution and pressure on resources, keeps material in use for much longer, and enables natural systems to regenerate, supporting environmental preservation and climate change mitigation. [64]
  • There may be an accelerated trend towards smart cities that use information technology and data to enhance urban management, the efficient use of resources and emissions reductions, and the quality of life for residents. [65]
  • Greater demand for green products is expected as environmental awareness is increasing.

Regional cooperation and integration

On intersectoral issues and transboundary environmental problems: Further efforts are needed, including the formulation and/or strengthening of regional normative frameworks that support coordination between interdependent sectors. Setting obligations may be necessary for State parties to perform environmental impact assessments on specific undertakings, and alert and consult with each other on all prospective initiatives with a possible major cross-boundary harmful environmental impact. Ministerial Councils under the League of Arab States play an important role in this area. For example, Arab agriculture and water ministers recently agreed in the joint Cairo Declaration in 2019 to join hands against the impacts of climate change, land degradation and water scarcity by harmonizing policies across the water and agricultural sectors. [66]

On advancing a regional green agenda: Strategic initiatives could be identified that address shared environmental priorities for different country groupings. For example, in 2020 ESCWA launched a Climate/SDGs Debt Swap - Donor Nexus Initiative, aimed at supporting debt relief and enhancing climate finance in middle-income Arab countries with a high and growing debt burden. The initiative “converts national debt-serving payments on foreign debt into domestic investment for implementing climate-resilient projects through collaborative arrangements between debtors, creditors and donors”. [67]

On renewable energy and environmental protection technologies: A formal mechanism to support technology transfer within the region could be established to help advance environmental technology-based solutions in Arab countries and support building back greener and more resilient from the COVID-19 crisis.[68] For instance, the adoption of green technologies in agriculture, such as green fertilizers, rainwater harvesting, solar dryers, food bio-conservation, and small-scale food processing for fruits, vegetables and dairy products could help alleviate challenges related to scarcity of natural resources, access to agricultural inputs, and access to markets, among others. This would in turn build the resilience of farmers.


[1] United Nations, COVID-19 Stimulus Tracker. Available at: http://tracker.unescwa.org/ (accessed on 8 October 2021)
[2] Ibid.
[3] Oman, Ministry of Finance, “Economic Stimulus Plan”, 2021.
[4] PWC, “Oman: Budget 2021 & 10th Five year development plan (2021-2025) - continued focus on diversification & maintaining deficit”, 2021.
[5] United Nations, COVID-19 Stimulus Tracker. Available at: http://tracker.unescwa.org/ (accessed on 8 October 2021)
[6] El Watan News, 21 economic decisions announced by president el-Sissi to confront the coronavirus crisis, 22 March 2020.
[7] Gulf News, “Coronavirus: Sharjah's 47-point stimulus package suspends eviction judgments, jail rulings on all rental-related cases”, 31 March 2020.
[8] United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, “COVID-19 Government Measures Dataset”, COVID-19 Pandemic, Humanitarian Data Exchange. Available at: https://data.humdata.org/dataset/acaps-covid19-government-measures-dataset (accessed on 19 November 2021).
[9] World Bank, “Social Protection and Jobs Responses to COVID-19: A Real-Time Review of Country Measures”, version 6, (Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2020).
[10] ESCWA, “Strengthening the capacity of the water and sanitation sector in Arab countries to deal with the COVID-19 crisis”, (E/ESCWA/CL1.CCS/2021/TP.6).
[11] Ibid.
[12] El Watan News, 21 economic decisions announced by president el-Sissi to confront the coronavirus crisis, 22 March 2020.
[13] MENAFN, “Qatar announces QR75bn stimulus for private sector“, 16 March 2020.
[14] Vivid Economics, “The Greenness of Stimulus Index”, 6th Edition, 2021.
[15] ESCWA, “Strengthening the capacity of the water and sanitation sector in Arab countries to deal with the COVID-19 crisis”, (E/ESCWA/CL1.CCS/2021/TP.6).
[16] Khaleej Times, “Covid-19: Fees reduced, cancelled under Abu Dhabi stimulus package”, 17 March 2020.
[17] Weqaya, “COVID-19: Sharjah govt announces second stimulus package”, 6 November 2020.
[18] Oman, Ministry of Finance, “Economic Stimulus Plan”, 2021.
[19] Vivid Economics, “The Greenness of Stimulus Index”, 2021; OECD, “The OECD Green Recovery Database: Examining the environmental implications of COVID-19 recovery policies”, 2021.
[20] Yuyan Zhang, “Promoting Green Development”, G20 Insights, 1 September 2017.
[21] International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), Cutting Emissions and Budget Deficits for a Post-Pandemic World: Fossil fuel subsidy reform and carbon pricing, Global Subsidies Initiative (Nordic Council of Ministers/Publication Unit, Copenhagen, 2020).
[22] United Arab Emirates, Official Portal of the UAE Government, “Operation 300bn, the United Arab Emirates industrial strategy”, 12 October 2021.
[23] Green hydrogen is “hydrogen fuel that is created using renewable energy instead of fossil fuels. It has the potential to provide clean power for manufacturing, transportation, and more - and its only by product is water”. Renee Cho, “Why We Need Green Hydrogen”, Columbia Climate School, 7 January 2021.
[24] Vivid Economics, “The Greenness of Stimulus Index”, 2021.
[25] Saudi Green Initiative, “Reducing Emissions”, n.d.
[26] Jordan, Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation, The Government’s Indicative Executive Programme (2021-2024), Part 1 and Part 2, 2021.
[27] Jordan, Ministry of Environment, “Transport Sector: Green Growth National Action Plan 2021-2025”, 2020.
[28] Algeria, Services du Premier Ministre, "Economic Recovery Plan 2020-2024" (French original title: Plan de Relance Économique 2020- 2024", 2021.
[29] Egypt, Ministry of Planning and Economic Development, “Egypt’s 2021 Voluntary National Review”, 2021.
[30] Lebanon, Ministry of Agriculture, “National Agriculture Strategy 2020-2025”, 2020.
[31] Somalia, Ministry of Planning, Investment and Economic Development, “National Development Plan 2020 to 2024”, 2020.
[32] Jordan, Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation, The Government’s Indicative Executive Programme (2021-2024) Part 1 and Part 2, 2021.
[33] Morocco, Voluntary National Review of SDG implementation (French original title: Examen National Volontaire De La Mise En Œuvre Des Objectifs De Développement Durable), 2020.
[34] Palestine, Prime Minister’s Office, "National Development Plan 2021-2023", 2020.
[35] Tunisia, "National Voluntary Report On The Implementation of SDGs 2021" (French original title: Rapport National Volontaire Sur La Mise En Œuvre Des Objectifs De Développement Durable), 2021.
[36] Marina Wes, “Building Back Better”, 2021.
[37] Palestine, Prime Minister’s Office, "National Development Plan 2021-2023", 2020.
[38] Platform for Redesign 2020, “Mauritania”, 8 October 2020.
[39] United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, “Syrian Arab Republic: Voluntary National Review 2020”, Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform, 2020.
[40] Morocco, Voluntary National Review of SDG implementation (French original title: Examen National Volontaire De La Mise En Œuvre Des Objectifs De Développement Durable), 2020.
[41] Saudi Green Initiative, “Reducing Emissions”, n.d.
[42] Ibid.
[43] IISD, “Two programs support green recovery in Egypt”, 13 November 2021; The Financial, “EBRD, EU and GCF boost green finance in Egypt”, 11 November 2020.
[44] IISD, “EU and EBRD: finance for green recovery in Egypt, Morocco and Eastern Partnership countries”, 3 July 2020.
[45] Enterprise Press, “Egypt is poised to ride 2021’s green bond wave, 16 March 2021.
[46] World Bank, “World Bank Supports Jordan’s Green, Resilient, and Inclusive Recovery”, 14 June 2021.
[47] UAE Ministry of Climate Change and Environment, “UAE Sustainable Finance Framework 2021 – 2031”, 2021. Available at: https://www.moccae.gov.ae/assets/download/24b84d14/UAE_Sustainable_framework_21.pdf.aspx.
[48] Center for Applied Research on Partnership with the Orient (CARPO), “Post COVID-19: A Potential for Green Recovery in the Arab Gulf States”, 2021.
[49] NS Energy, “Kuwait scraps 1.5GW Al-Dabdaba solar project due to coronavirus impact”, 14 July 2020.
[50] OECD, Towards green growth: Tracking progress, (Paris, OECD publishing, 2015).
[51] Ibid.
[52] OECD, “The OECD Green Recovery Database”, 2021.
[53] ILO, “Just transition towards environmentally sustainable economies and societies for all”, ILO ACTRAV Policy Brief, 2018.
[54] The Leadership Group for Industry Transition, “Reaching Net-Zero Industry Through Public-Private Partnerships”, 28 May 2021.
[55] ESCWA, “Policy Options for Promoting Green Technologies in the Arab Region”
[56] OECD, “Making the green recovery work for jobs, income and growth”, 6 October 2020.
[57] United Nations Environment Programme, Promoting Sustainable Finance and Green Finance in the Arab Region (Geneva, UNEP, 2021).
[58] ILO, World Employment and Social Outlook 2018: Greening with Jobs (International Labour Office – Geneva: ILO, 2018).
[59] European Parliament, “Global Mega-Trends. Scanning the Post-Coronavirus Horizon”, 2020.
[60] Owen Bennet, “Green sukuk market won’t ignite without Gulf governments backing, warns top Fitch Ratings analyst”, Arab News, 7 September 2021.
[61] Vivid Economics, “The Greenness of Stimulus Index”, 2021.
[62] ESCWA, “Technical note on co-benefits of adaptation and mitigation for climate actions: Nature-based solutions”, E/ESCWA/CLI1.CSS/2021/TP.1, 2021.
[63] Damian Carrington, “World leaders announce plan to make green tech cheaper than alternatives”, The Guardian, 2 November 2021.
[64] David McGinty, “How to Build a Circular Economy”, World Resources Institute, 6 August 2020.
[65] Steph Pietras, Alyson Marks and Grant Cameron, “Mobilizing ‘Smart City’ Growth for a Resilient Future”, Thematic Research Network on Data and Statistics (TReNDS), 14 June 2021.
[66] ESCWA, “Arab agriculture and water ministers agree to join hands against impacts of climate change, land degradation and water scarcity”, 4 April 2019.
[67] ESCWA, “Climate/SDGs debt swap mechanisms”, 2021.
[68] Yuyan Zhang, “Promoting Green Development”, 2017.